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    不让稀土卖“白菜价”,专家呼吁建设统一产品交易市场

    作者:  更新时间:2019-06-21  点击量:5908

     近日,国家发改委、工信部等三部委正在密集调研稀土产业。发改委称,将就稀土产业发展面临的多种问题尽快研究出台有关政策措施。

     我国虽然是世界最大的稀土生产国,但在稀土定价机制上话语权不足,战略资源卖成“白菜价”的现象长期存在。在本月初发改委连续举办三场座谈会中,打击稀土违法违规生产,调控生产总量是话题的重心。

     多位行业专家对第一财经记者表示,应打造全国统一的公开交易平台,形成稀土市场化定价机制,一方面使得行业痛点迎刃而解,另一方面也为实施产业政策和调控提供了抓手。

     稀土不能当土卖

     稀土是17种金属元素的总称,被称为“工业维生素”,从消费电子到国防,应用领域十分广泛。在新兴产业中,新能源汽车、新一代信息技术、新材料、先进制造业、生物工程和节能环保,都离不开稀土。

     据美国地质调查局(USGS)统计,到2018年,全球稀土储量为1.2亿吨,其中中国有4400万吨,占36.6%,不仅储量第一,并且资源覆盖全面,能向发达国家供应400多种稀土产品。

     1978年,“全国稀土推广应用领导小组”成立,不断攻克稀土产业化难题,使得稀土成为了出口创汇的一大宝器。

     过去四十年间,我国稀土产能增长了400倍,达到40万吨左右,占全球90%以上。去年,我国产量配额虽然控制在12万吨,但实际产量大大超出。产能过剩的矛盾反而突出。

     由于供过于求,近年来稀土价格呈现下降趋势,中国稀土行业协会公布的稀土价格指数从2013年的200多点,跌倒今年120点附近。今年5月,国家领导人考察赣州稀土企业后,稀土价格指数快速反弹至160点,近两个月累计上涨超过三成。

    微信图片_20190621140024.png

     尽管我国拥有稀土的优势地位,但私采、盗挖、走私现象屡禁不绝,加上行业恶性竞争,导致稀土低价外销现象显著。

     过去8年里,我国乃至世界最大的稀土生产企业北方稀土(600111.SH)销售毛利率不断下降,从2011年最高72.8%,下降到今年初的10.4%,南方主要稀土加工企业五矿稀土(000831.SZ)毛利率更是不及10%。

     “国外都是大买家,而我们是100多家企业分散对外销售,国外买家在低价时大量购进中国稀土产品,价格上涨时则停止采购、使用库存,待再次降价时再行购进,这就逼着国内企业竞相降价出售。”一位从业稀土行业多年的资深人士对第一财经记者表示。

     他认为,行业所赚取的微薄利润已严重不能补偿生态修复的成本,也不能匹配稀土资源的应有价值。

     记者了解到,稀土开采需要付出较大的环境代价,除了会破坏山体表面植被,还会因为向山体注入大量硫酸铵导致水体营养化、山体滑坡,产生有毒气体、废水、放射性废渣等等。因环保因素考虑,我国南方已有多处稀土矿被实行保护性停产。

     6月17日的发改委新闻发布会上,新闻发言人孟玮表示,针对稀土行业生态环保历史欠账的问题,将扎实推进矿山生态修复和环境治理,推进稀土产业的绿色发展。针对行业违法违规生产的问题,将加大行业整顿规范的力度,构建长效的监管机制,规范行业的发展秩序。

     专家建议设立统一交易市场

     近年来,国家、地方政府出台了多项管理办法和扶持政策,调控产量一直是重点工作。

     2011年5月,国务院发布《关于促进稀土行业持续健康发展的若干意见》(下称“国发12号文”),明确了稀土是不可再生的重要战略资源,搭建了稀土产业的整体规划,加强出口配额管理,坚决打击违法生产和超计划生产,并健全税收、价格等调控措施。

     不过,目前,超额开采生产的现象依然普遍,偷逃资源税的“黑矿”持续存在,定价难、卖货难、卖货难仍然困扰着行业和监管者。

     虽然国内企业主导了稀土产品的生产环节,但价格却往往受制于发达国家的买方公司,一些国内厂商更以低于成本价倾销。在很长时期里,稀土价格不增反降,如镧、铈等稀土产品价格甚至远远低于采挖的成本。

     中国稀土学会副秘书长张安文对第一财经《首席评论》表示,价格是一把双刃剑,太低了不能反映价值也不能覆盖治理环境、恢复生态的成本,太高了也会让下游企业承受不起。可以设立交易平台,把控供需关系,建立价格形成机制。

     前述行业资深人士告诉记者,过去的行政性手段对行业调控有一定作用,但真正解决痛点还要靠市场手段配置资源。而一个公开透明的全国统一市场,既可以通过价格形成来理顺行业,也能成为实施国家战略和产业政策的抓手。

     目前,我国还没有形成全国统一的稀土产品交易市场,具有生产垄断性的六大稀土集团及下属企业在销售环节各自为战,贸易方式方式相对传统,行业小、散、乱的格局未能得到根本改变。

    北京工商大学证券期货研究所所长胡俞越对第一财经记者表示,稀土定价有两种模式可以参考,一是OPEC(石油输出国组织)模式,通过六大集团联合增产减产的办法影响价格。

    二是借鉴原油交易所、黄金交易所,打造公平竞争的稀土交易平台,让产业链参与各方在平台上买卖,形成相对权威的基准价格,进而成为全球稀土的定价基础,“打好价格牌。”

     前述行业资深人士告诉记者,公开市场平台上,国家可以通过商业收储等方式调节市场供需,效率能大大超过行政指令。统一交易平台还有利于建立出口全流程可追溯机制,和解决行业偷逃税问题。

     他认为,公开市场能给行业带来价格指导,平抑风险,实现供应稳定、开采销售可控,并且从贸易环节堵住“黑稀土”销售,避免稀土卖个“白菜价”。价格形成后,稀土企业还可以使用货物进行质押融资,缓解生产经营的流动资金问题。(来源:第一财经)

    (免责声明:本文章转自网络,不代表本网观点,不构成投资建议,内容仅供参考。如涉及版权和其它问题,请在30日内与本网联系。)

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